1 Ferguson, N.M. & Donnelly, C.A. (2003). Assessment of the risk posed by bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle in Great Britain and the impact of potential changes to current control measures. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 270. 1579-1584.

2 JW Wilesmith et al, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: epidemiological studies, Veterinary Record, 123 (25): 638-44, Dec. 1988

3 S Dealler, Should young U.K. cattle be considered free of BSE or is it endemic?
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4 JW Wilesmith et al, Temporal aspects of the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Great Britain: holding-associated risk factors for the disease, Veterinary Record, 16;147(12):319-25, Sept. 2000.

5 Tyshenko, M. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and the Safety of Milk From Canadian Dairy Cattle. Vet Rec. 2007 Feb 17; 160(7). 215-218
6 Wells, G.A.H, Konold, T., Arnold, ME., Austin, A.R., Hawkins, S.A.C, M.J, Stack., Simmons, MM., Lee, YH., Gavier-Widen, D., Dawson, M and Wilesmith, JW.(2007) Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle. 88. 1363-1373.

7 Personal communication from Dr. Danny Matthews, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, U.K., August 2007.

8 C Hoffman et al, Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system in cattle, Journal of General Virology. 88, 1048-1055, 2007.

9 Arnold, M.E., Ryan, J.B.M., Konold, T., Simmons, M.M., Spencer, Y.I., Wear, A., Chaplin, M., Stack, M., Czub, S., Mueller, R., Webb, P.R., Davis, A., Spiropoulos, J., Holdaway, J., Hawkins, S.A.C., Austin, A.R. and Wells, G.A.H. (2007). Estimating the temporal relationship between PrPSc detection and incubation period in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. J. Gen. Virol., 88. 3198-3208.

10 T Yokoyama et al, Experimental Transmission of Two Young Cases and One Suspended Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Cases to Bovinized Transgenic Mice. Jpn J. Infect. Dis., 60, 317-320, 2007.

11 Ghani, A.C., Donnelly, C.A., Ferguson, N.M, and Anderson. R.M. (2003). Updated predictions of the future vCJD deaths in the UK. BMC Infectious Diseases. 3.

12 Iwata, N., Sato, Y. Higuchi, Y. Nohtomi, K. Nagata, N. Hasegawa, H. Tobiume, M. Nakamura, Y., Hagiwara, K., Furuoka, H, Horiuchi, M. Yamakawa, Y &  Sata.T (2006). Distribution of PrP(Sc) in Cattle with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Slaughtered at Abattoirs in Japan.  Jpn J Infect Dis.  59:100-7.

13 Masujin, K., Matthews, D., Wells, G.A.H., Mohri, S and Yokoyama, T. (2007). Prions in the peripheral nerves of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) affected cattle. J. Gen. Virol. J Gen Virol. 88. 1850-1858 

14 Buschmann A., Groschup MH.  Highly BSE-sensitive transgenic mice confirm the essential restriction of infectivity to the nervous system in clinically diseased cattle. J Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 1;192(5):934-42.

15 GAH Wells et al, Pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy: preclinical infectivity in tonsil and observations on the distribution of lingual tonsil in slaughtered cattle, Veterinary Record, 156, 401-407, March 2005.

16 Espinosa, J-C., Morales, ,M., Castilla, J., Rogers, M. and Torres, J.M. (2007) Progression of prion infectivity in asymptomatic cattle after oral bovine spongiform encephalopathy challenge. J. Gen. Virol. 88. 1379-1383

17 Wells, G.A.H, Hawkins, S.A.C, Green,  Y.I, Spencer, A.R, Dexter, , and Dawson, M. (1998). Limited detection of sternal bone marrow infectivity in the clinical phase of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Vet Rec. 144, 292-294.

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